The scope or field of management accounting is very wide and broad based and it includes a variety of aspects of business operations. The main aim of management accounting is to help management in its functions of planning, directing, controlling and areas of specialization included within the admit of management accounting. The scope of management accounting can be studied as follows:
1. Financial Accounting
Financial accounting forms the basis for analysis and interpretation for furnishing meaningful data to the management. The control aspect is based on financial data and performance evaluation, on recorded facts and figures. So, management accounting is closely related to financial accounting in many respects.
2. Cost Accounting
Cost accounting is the process and techniques of ascertaining cost. Planning, decision making and control are the basic managerial functions. The cost accounting system provides the necessary tool for carrying out such functions efficiently. The tools includes standard costing, inventory management, variable costing etc.
3. Budgeting And Forecasting
Budgeting means expressing the plans, policies and goals of the firm for a definite period in future. Forecasting on the other hand, is a prediction of what will happen as a result of a given set of circumstances. Forecasting is a judgement whereas the budgeting is an organizational object. These are useful for management accounting in planning.
4. Inventory Control
Inventory is necessary to control from the time it is acquire till its final disposal as it involves large sum. For controlling inventory, management should determine different level of stock. The inventory control technique will be helpful for taking managerial decisions.
5. Statistical Method
Statistical tools not only make the information more impressive, comprehensive and intelligible but also are highly useful for planning and forecasting.
6. Interpretation Of Data
Analysis and interpretation of financial statements are important part of management accounting. After analyzing the financial statements, the interpretation is made and the reports drawn from this analysis are presented to the management. Interpreting the accounting data to the authorities in the management is the principal task of management accounting.
7. Reporting To Management
The interpreted information must be communicated to those who are interested in it. The report may cover Profit and Loss Account, Cash Flow and Funds Flow statements etc.
8. Internal Audit And Tax Accounting
Management accounting studies all the tax matters to assist the management in investment decisions vis-a-vis tax planning as a resource to enjoy tax relief.
Internal audit system is necessary to judge the performance of every department. Management is able to know deviations in performance through internal audit. It also helps management in fixing responsibility of different individuals.
9. Methods Of Procedures
This includes maintenance of proper data processing and other office management services. It may have to deal with filing, copying, duplicating, communicating and management information system and also may have to report about the utility of different office machines.