Concept And Types Of Elasticity Of Demand

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Concept Of Elasticity Of Demand

The concept of elasticity of demand was first introduced by the classical economists Cournot and J.S Mill. Later on, new classical economist Alfred marshal developed it in the scientific way.
The elasticity of demand is the measurement of responsiveness of demand for a commodity to the change in any of its determinants. viz. price of the commodity, price of the related commodity, consumer's income, taste and preferences etc.

Types Of Elasticity Of Demand
There are several kinds of elasticity of demand. The most important elasticity of demands are as follows:

1. Price elasticity of demand
2. Income elasticity of demand

Concept, Meaning And Definitions Of Economics

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Concept And Meaning Of Economics

Economics is a social science which studies and explains human behavior. But economics is a new social science as compared to other social sciences. Before 18th century economics was treated as part of Political Science, Ethics and Religion. The 18th century classical economists developed it as a separate social science. Economics is a science in the sense that the economists aim to develop theories of human behavior and to test them against the facts. 
It is customary to begin elementary economic theory with a definition of economics. Nothing, however, is settled by definition. A wide subject like economics cannot be restricted to a boundary fixed by definition. Economics extends to the subjects covered and methods used by the economists. Similarly, it also suggests that boundary of economics changes as the range of subject covered by economists changes.
Definitions Of Economics
The economic science has been differently defined by different economists. Each definitions lays stress on particular aspect of economic activities. The definitions of economics can be classified into three parts for convenience. They are wealth definition, welfare definition and scarcity definition of economics.

1. Wealth Definition Of Economics (Adam Smith)
The earliest definitions of economics were in terms of wealth. In 1776, Adam Smith, the father of economics and leader of classical economist published his epoch-making book " An enquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations",  popularly known as wealth of nations. It is obvious that Adam Smith considered his work to be an enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth of nations.In other words, he treated economics as a science of wealth. His followers like J.B Say. J.S Mill and F.A Walker supported him. J.S Mill defined economics as- " The practical science of the production and distribution of wealth". J.B Say called economics- " The science which treats of wealth". Walker defined it as- " That body of knowledge which relates to wealth".
Adam Smith was concerned with the broader aspects of wealth, the means by which the total volume of production could be increased. This has been a recent aim of economic policy. J.S Mill's definition is wider in the sense that he included problems of both production and distribution. These two factors influence the standard of living of people.
Adam Smith and his followers treated economics as a science of wealth. The term wealth was interpreted in a very normal sense to mean abundance money. It implies that the economists are expected to suggest ways and means of increasing the wealth of a country.

2.Welfare Definition Of Economics ( A. Marshall)
Alfred Marshall, a neo-classical economist, is the leader of welfare definition of economics. A.C Pigou and Edwin Cannan supported his view,The emphasis shifted from wealth to material welfare. It is because wealth is only a means to and end, end being human welfare. As opined by Marshall- " Economics is, on one side, a study of wealth; and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man".
Marshall defined economics in these words- " Economics is a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life; it explains that part of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainment and with the use of the material requisites of well-being".

3.Scarcity Definition Of Economics (L. Robbins)
Lionel Robbins gave his own definition of economics in his book " Nature and Significance of Economics" published in 1932. His definition was supported by a long line of economists like Samuelson, Oskar Lange, Stigler, A,p Lerner, Cairncross and so on.

According to Robbins -" Economics is the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses".
Supporting Robbins, Oskar Lange defined economics as" The science of administration of scares resources in human society".
The basic propositions of Robbins definition are as follows:
* Wants or ends are unlimited
* Means are scarce
* Scarce means have alternative uses
* The ends are of varying importance.

Concept And Meaning Of Unit Banking

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Unit banking has one office. Generally, limited banking services are offered to customers by unit banking organization. Although unit banking organization has one banking office, it can spread cash counters in market place such as walk-in windows, automated teller machines, retail store point-of-sale terminals that are linked to the bank's computer system.

Unit banking is the oldest kind of banking organization most common in the world banking today. One reason for the comparatively large number of unit banks is the rapid formation of new banks. It can be established easily even in an age of electronic banking and mega mergers among industry leaders. Many customers still seem to prefer small banks, which get to know their customers well and often provide personalized services.

Most new banks start out as unit organization, because their capital, management and staffs are severely limited until the bank can grow and attract additional resources and professional staff. Later, they try to convert them into branch banking organization. However, economic and legal barriers to banks expanding geographically into new territory still exist in some places. Yet, most banks desire to create multiple service facilities-branch offices, electronic networks, and other service outlets. In competitive banking market, it is essential to open new markets and diversify geographically in order to lower risk and cost of banking services. If the surrounding economy weakens and people move away to other market areas, it becomes very risky in relying on a single office location, from which to receive customers and income.

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Concept And Meaning Of Bank
Services Offered By Modern Commercial Banks

Services Offered By Modern Commercial Banks

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Generally, modern commercial banks offer following services to customers or public:

1. Accepting Deposit
Accepting deposit from savers or account holders is the primary function of bank. Banks accept deposit from those who can save money, but cannot utilize in profitable sectors. People prefer to deposit their savings in a bank because by doing so, they earn interest.

2. Advancing Of Loans
Banks are profit oriented business organizations. So they have to advance loan to public and generate interest from them as profit. After keeping certain cash reserves, banks provide short-term, medium-term and long-term loans to needy borrowers. 

3. Discounting Of Bill Of Exchange
Bill of exchange is a negotiable instrument, which is accepted by the debtor, drawn upon him/her by the creditor and agrees to pay the amount mentioned on maturity. Discounting bill of exchange is another function of modern commercial bank. Under this, banks purchase bill of exchange from holder in discount after making some marginal deduction in the form of commission. The banks pay the deducted value to the holders when traders discount it into bank.

                       Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Bank

4. Cheque Payment
Banks provide cheque pads to the account holders. Account holders can draw cheque upon bank to pay money. Banks pay for cheques of customers after formal verification and official procedures. .

5. Remittance
Remittance is a system, through which cash fund is transferred from one place to another. Banks provide the facilities of remittance to the customers and earn some service charge.

6. Collection And Payment Of Credit Instruments
In modern business, different types of credit instruments such as bill of exchange, promissory notes, cheques etc. are used. Banks deal with such instruments. Modern banks collect and pay different types of credit instruments as the representative of the customers.

                      Also read: Meaning Of Unit Banking

7. Foreign Currency Exchange
Banks deal with foreign currencies. As the requirement of customers, banks exchange foreign currencies with local currencies, which is essential to settle down the dues in the international trade.

8. Consultancy
Modern commercial banks are large organizations. They can expand their function to consultancy business. In this function, banks hire financial, legal and market experts, who provide advices to customers in regarding investment, industry, trade, income, tax etc.

9. Bank Guarantee
Customers are provided the facility of bank guarantee by modern commercial banks. When customers have to deposit certain fund in governmental offices or courts for specific purpose, bank can present itself as the guarantee for the customer, instead of depositing fund by customers.

Concept And Meaning Of Bank

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A bank is financial institution, which deals with money and credit. Bank accepts deposits from the public and mobilizes the fund to productive sectors. Bank also provides remittance facility to transfer money from one place to another. Generally, bank accepts deposits from business institutions and individuals , which is mobilized into productive sectors mainly business and consumer lending. So bank is also called a dealer of money. At present context, a bank may engaged in different types of functions such as remittance, exchange currency, joint venture, underwriting, bank guarantee, discounting bills etc. The modern bank refers to an institution having the following characteristics:

* Bank deals with money: it accepts deposits and advances loans.
* Bank also deals with credit: it has the ability to create credit by expanding its liabilities.
* Bank is commercial institution: it aims at earning profit.

Banks are the principal source of credit for millions of individuals and families and for many units of government. They are among the most important financial institutions in the economy. Moreover, for small local businesses to large dealers, banks are often the major source of credit to stock the shelves with merchandise. Banks grand more installment loans to consumer than any other financial institutions.
Banks are among the leading buyers of bonds and notes issued by government to finance public facilities, ranging from hospitals and football stadiums to airports and highways. Moreover, bank reserves are the principal channel for government economic policy to stabilize the economy.
Banks are the important sources of short-term working capital for businesses. They have become increasingly active in recent years in making long-term business loans for new plants and equipment. When businesses and consumers must make payments for purchase of goods and services, more often they use bank provided cheques, debit or credit cards, or electronic accounts connected to a computer network.
Bank is a intermediary which accepts deposits and grants loans. It offers widest menu of services of any financial institution. In fact, a modern bank performs such a variety of functions that it is difficult to give a precise and general definition of a bank.

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Disadvantages Of Decentralization

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Decentralization has the following drawbacks or disadvantages:

1. Decentralization Increases Expenditure
Decentralization needs qualified, competent and skilled managers at the middle and lower levels. They are to be paid remuneration on the basis of their qualification and experience. Besides, there is the possibility of duplication of effort, which unnecessarily may increase cost of production.

2. Decentralization Creates Conflict
In decentralization, the top level management puts more pressure on departmental managers to increase output and revenue. In such a situation, every department lays more emphasis on their own departmental goals instead of corporate goals. This may give rise to inter-departmental conflict and too much fragmentation creates problems in coordination and control.

3. Decentralization Is Unsuitable For Emergency Situation
In decentralization, lower and middle level managers are assigned authority only for routine decisions. Whenever they face complex and non-programmed problems they cannot take a decision due to limited authority.

4. Decentralization Maximizes Risk
In decentralization, decision making authority is delegated to the subordinate level. If subordinate level managers are unskilled and incapable, they may take wrong decision, which may increase the risks and result in losses.

5. Decentralization Is Unsuitable For Specialized Services
The concept of decentralization is not applicable in some types of services. It is not suitable for specialized nature of services like accounting, human resource, engineering, surgery etc.

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Concept And Meaning Of Centralization

Advantages Of Decentralization

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Decentralization has the following advantages:

1. Decentralization Facilitates Managers' Development
In decentralization, appropriate responsibility and authority is delegated to subordinate level managers. It gives them an opportunity to hone their skills and efficiency so as to get promotions. Therefore, decentralization creates the reserve of talency.

2. Relief To Top Managers
In decentralization, most of the routine managerial responsibilities are delegated to middle and lower level managers. It minimizes the excessive workload of the top managers. It gives sufficient time to the top managers to concentrate on non-programed decisions like planning, policy making, strategy formulation etc.

                                 Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Decentralization

3. Effective Control
In decentralization, it is convenient to set standards of performance. This helps to compare actual performance with standard performance more quickly. This helps in taking prompt decisions to correct deviations. This leads to maintaining effective control.

4. Possibility Of Better Decision
Decentralization delegates the decision making authority to the managers nearest to the level of operation. The managers working nearest to the operation are in a better position to understand the complexity of problems. This helps in taking a better decision to solve the problems.

                         Also read: Disadvantages Of Decentralization

5. Decentralization Facilitates Diversification
The addition of new product lines or expansion of existing lines of business develops complexity in an organization. This also develops a challenge to the top management. The top managers can meet such challenges by delegating authority to their subordinates. Top managers can only play the role of coordinators.

6. High Morale And Motivation
Decentralization is highly motivational as it gives the subordinates the freedom to act and take decisions. This develops among the subordinates a feeling of status and recognition and ultimately a feeling of dedication and commitment. This helps in maintaining high motivation and morale of subordinates.

                        Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Centralization

Concept And Meaning Of Decentralization

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Decentralization is the systematic delegation of managerial authority to middle and lower level management according to their weightage of responsibility. In practical, it is not possible to delegate absolute authority to the lower level management. Top level management can delegate only substantial power to the lower level management. Therefore, every organization has to decide how much authority should be centralized and how much should be decentralized. Decentralization depends on the size and nature of the organization and responsibility vested on the lower level. The top level management has to delegate such degree of authority to the lower level so that quick decisions and their implementation are possible.

Therefore, decentralization may be known as the philosophy of scientific and systematic delegation of managerial authority to the middle and lower level managers in accordance with their responsibility. This philosophy states that the top level management should keep limited authority and delegate maximum authority to operating levels. Top management has to play the role of supervisor.

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Concept And Meaning Of Centralization
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Disadvantages Of Centralization

Disadvantages Of Centralization

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The following are the main drawbacks or disadvantages of centralization:

1. Centralization Is Unsuitable For Large Organization
Centralization is impractical in large business organization having various branches in different locations. It is difficult to communicate managerial decisions to different operating levels in the management hierarchy. Top level managers cannot effectively supervise and control all the activities of the organization.

2. Manager Is Overburdened
In centralization, top managers are over burdened with authority and responsibility while managing each and every activity of the organization. He/she cannot devote sufficient time in other major issues. It tends to decrease working efficiency of the organization.

3. Possibility Of Power Misuse
Centralization of authority at the top level may result in under-utilization of power. Top level managers may exercise their powers on the basis of their personal judgement. This may lead to misuse of authority if the managers lack proper skills and ability.

4. Low Morale Motivation
In centralization. middle and lower level managers feel uncomfortable while performing the assigned task. They do not have the required authority to deal with problems effectively. They do not get any opportunity to show and develop their personality. The lack of motivation tends to affect the morale of subordinates.

5. Lack Of Environmental Adaptation
Business environment is dynamic and therefore, it changes according to time. In business, it is essential to take quick decisions to resolve problems of concerned departments or branches. Centralization is not applicable in dynamic environment as flexibility will not come promptly from the top level.

6. Inappropriate For Routine Decisions
In centralization, top level managers devote maximum time in taking routine decisions. Therefore, they cannot devote more time in non-programmed decisions. This will have a negative impact on the long term performance of the organization.

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Advantages Of Centralization

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The following are the main benefits or advantages of centralization:

1. Centralization Facilitates Unified Decision
Top level managers take all decisions in centralization. It is not necessary to consult and take consent of subordinates while taking a decision. The subordinates perform activities on the basis of instructions which facilitates maintenance of uniformity and consistency in performance.

2. Centralization Simplifies Structure
In centralized organization, the structure tends to be simple and clear. It involves two levels- managerial and operating levels. Managerial level is responsible for decision making whereas operating level is responsible for execution.

3. Centralization Facilitates Quicker Decision
Centralization facilitates quicker decision as one manager takes all the decisions. Managers can take suggestions and guidance from experts and professionals, but the final decision is taken by him. Quick decision is essential for business success in competitive environment.

4. Economy In Operation
In centralization. many levels and positions of management are reduced. It minimizes overhead cost of the organization. It also helps in effective utilization of skilled, qualified and experienced members.

5. Centralization integrates Operation
Centralization helps to integrate and unify all the operations of the organization. The top level manager maintains close supervision of the subordinates and their functions. On the basis of requirement, a manager takes quick decision to maintain control over the activities of the employees.

6. Centralization Is Suitable For Small Firms
Centralization is highly appropriate for small business organization performing business in a competitive environment. In such organizations, managers can personally look after overall activities of the organization.

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Concept And Meaning Of Centralization

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Centralization is known as the systematic reservation of decision making authority at the top level management. Centralization reduces the roles of subordinates and the top level assumes full authority of running business activities. Top managers have direct control over each and every activity of the organization while the decision making authority is also vested on them.

Centralizes facilitates a manager to keep in touch with all the activities of the organization and facilitates quicker decisions. This system is highly appropriate in small organizations performing business in a competitive environment. However, expansion of the size of the business creates complexities in business activities of the organization and in such a situation centralization becomes impractical. Top management needs to form departments and branches on the basis of nature of work and decision making authority should be delegated to the departmental heads.

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Decision Making Conditions

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There are different conditions in which decisions are made. Managers sometimes have an almost perfect understanding of conditions surrounding a decision, but in other situations they may have little information about those conditions. So, the decision maker must know the conditions under which decisions are to be made. Generally, the decision maker makes decision under the condition of certainty, risk and uncertainty.

1. Certainty
Certainty is a condition under which the manager is well informed about possible alternatives and their outcomes. There is only one outcome for each choice. When the outcomes are known and their consequences are certain, the problem of decision is to compute the optimum outcome. Similarly, if there are more than one alternative they are evaluated by conducting cost studies of each alternative and then choosing the one which optimizes the utility of the resources. The condition of certainty exists in case of routine decisions such as allocation of resources for production, payment of wages and salary etc. There is a little ambiguity and relatively low chance of making and impractical decision.

2. Risk
A more decision making condition is a state of risk. In such a condition, managers have knowledge about alternative course of actions but outcomes are associated with probability estimates. It is more difficult to predict future conditions without full information, so the outcome of an alternative cannot be accurately determined. Therefore, managers can guess the probable outcome on the basis of their experience, research and other available information. They can choose an alternative with highest expected outcome. However, such decisions are largely subjective as no decision criteria are fully reliable. Decision making under conditions of risk is accompanied by moderate ambiguity and chances of an impractical decision.

3. Uncertainty
A state of uncertainty occurs when managers are unaware of the problem they face. They do not know all the alternatives, the risk associated with them or the likely consequences of each alternative. This uncertainty arises from the complexity and dynamism of contemporary organization and their environments. Managers have limited information to calculate the degree of risk, so statistical analysis is not possible. The condition of uncertainty arises when the organization introduces a new or innovative product or service, adopts new technology, selects new advertising program etc. To make effective decision in uncertain conditions, managers must acquire as much relevant information as possible and approach the situation from a logical and rational perspective. Intuition , judgment and experience always play major roles in the decision making process. However, decision under uncertainty is the most ambiguous for managers and there is more possibility of error.

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Barriers To Delegation Of Authority

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The following are the common barriers in delegation of authority:

1. Reluctant To Delegate
Some managers are reluctant to delegate authority to subordinates. They believe that they can take a better decision than their subordinates. This belief is often found among those managers who have been recently promoted and those having superiority complex. They have no proper plan to delegate authority. In such a situation, subordinates will have less work and lose the commitment to implement the manager;s decisions.

2. Fear Of Losing Importance
Managers who feel comfortable with authority,fear to delegate authority. They feel that it will diminish their importance. Such managers delegate only that part of authority to subordinates which relates to their job responsibility. They retain their authority as a positional superior of an organization.

                          Also read: Advantages Of Delegation Of Authority

3. Loss Of Control
Some managers opine that they will lose control by delegating authority to their subordinates.They feel that if they delegate authority to their subordinates, they would not be sure to achieve assigned responsibilities from subordinates. Such fear is reasonable in case managers are incapable of getting the jobs done from others.

4. Mutual Distrust
Managers are often reluctant to delegate authority to subordinates if there is an environment of distrust in the organization.A manager must have confidence in his own ability to help, guide and control his subordinates before delegating authority. If a manager does not have the ability to make a sound decision he does not believe in his subordinates. He does not want to take risk to get jobs done from others.

                     Also read: Features Of Delegation Of Authority

5. Fear Of Subordinates 
Managers are reluctant to delegate authority if they fear that it will expose their shortcomings. They feel that their subordinates will perform better and may create problems in their own career. They have no self-confidence and do not want to face the competitive environment.

6. Incompetent Subordinates
Some subordinates are often unwilling to accept delegated authority because of lack of self-confidence. They fear of making mistakes in their performance. It is the responsibility of the superior to develop their self confidence by guiding them and also creating a supportive environment.

                           Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Delegation Of Authority

7. Lack Of Motivation
Lack of motivational environment discourages subordinates to take responsibility and accept authority. Such environment is found in organizations where there is lack of reward and judgement system.

Advantages Of Delegation Of Authority

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The following are the major advantages of delegation of authority:

1. Minimize Work Load Of Managers
Delegation of authority minimizes the workload of managers.They can assign regular and routine nature of work to their subordinates while they concentrate more effectively in managerial and creative functions. In this way, delegation of authority helps in improving managerial efficiency and effectiveness.

2. Benefit Of Specialization
Specialization is the means of success in a dynamic environment.The management delegates authority as well as responsibility to subordinates on the basis of their ability and knowledge. This contributes in the development of the concept of specialization among the subordinates.

                       Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Delegation Of Authority

3.Motivation And Morale
Delegation of authority develops among the subordinates a feeling of status and prestige. It helps to improve their working efficiency.It also promotes a sense of initiative and responsibility among them. This ultimately leads to maintenance of high morale on the part of subordinates. This motivation and morale of subordinates encourages them to develop their effort towards the achievement of common goals.

4. Training And Development
Delegation of authority provides a background for training and development of subordinates. The manager delegates some of his authority as well as responsibility to the subordinates in accordance with their ability. The subordinates have to perform a task on behalf of the superior and in the same situation they have to take decisions by using their own ideas and knowledge. This environment provides a framework for the development of managerial ability among the subordinates.

                   Also read: Features Of Delegation Of Authority

5. Facilitates Growth And Expansion
Delegation of authority facilitates growth and expansion of business activities. It provides flexibility in the organizational structure. According to the requirement, more layers can be added to the existing organizational structure through the process of delegation.

6. Quicker And Better Decision
Delegation of authority ensures a quicker and better decision. Subordinates get the authority to decide on the matters of their own area by remaining within the limitations. Here, subordinates can take quick decisions without consulting the superior. Decision making is also better because subordinates are closer to the reality of the situation.

                   Also read: Barriers To Delegation Of Authority

7. Basis Of Organizing
Delegation of authority is the basis of forming an organizational structure. The number of layers in the organizational structure depends upon the nature of delegation of authority and responsibility. In a similar way, the functioning of the enterprise is not possible without an organizational structure. Therefore, the management has to first decide on the layers of delegation of work, authority and responsibility and then proceed with the formation of organizational structure.

Features Of Delegation Of Authority

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Delegation of authority possesses the following features:

1. No Delegation Of  Total Authority
A manager cannot delegate his/her total authority to the subordinates.He/she can delegate only a portion of it. A supervisor's status would be affected if he/she delegates total authority to the subordinates. It is not possible and is also not allowed by the management concept.

2. Delegation Of Only That Authority That A Manager Has
A manager cannot delegate the authority to a subordinate which he himself does not possess.It means that no one can give what he has not got. This feature is based on legality.

3. Representation Of The Superior
Delegation of authority to subordinates represents the superior in the subject matter which is delegated to him. In such a case, a subordinate is supposed to behave and act in the same manner in which the superior would have behaved and acted.

                    Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Delegation Of Authority

4. Delegation For Organizational Purpose
A superior delegates his authority to a subordinates only for organizational purposes.He cannot delegate the authority to fulfill his personal objectives.

5. Restoration Of Delegated Authority
Authority once delegated may be enhanced or reduced on the basis of nature of duties and its effectiveness. It may be completely withdrawn in case of ineffectiveness and termination of subordinates from the organization. Therefore, a manager does not permanently delegate his authority.

                  Also read: Advantages Of Delegation Of Authority

6. Balance Of Authority And Responsibility
A manager has to delegate authority to the subordinates on the basis of weight of responsibility to him. The assignment of responsibility to a subordinate without proper authority becomes worthless because that subordinate cannot perform the functions independently and efficiently.

7. No Delegation Of Responsibility
A manager can delegate authority to his subordinates in accordance with assigned responsibility, but the final responsibility, however,lies on him.He cannot escape from his responsibilities.

                 Also read: Barriers To Delegation Of Authority

Concept And Meaning Of Delegation Of Authority

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The process of assignment of specific work to individuals within the organization and giving them the right to perform those works is delegation. Delegation of authority is one of the most significant concepts in management practice, which affects managerial functions. Management is the art of getting things done through others and delegation means to get the results through the subordinates. The expansion of business volume and diversification of line of business makes it impracticable to handle all the business by a single manager. Therefore, the concept of delegation of some managerial authority to subordinates comes into practice in present day business organizations.Here, the manager delegates some of his authority to his subordinates. This helps in developing a feeling of dedication to the work among the subordinates. The top level management plays only the role of a supervisor and visits them to provide guidance, suggestions and instructions.It minimizes the work load of the top manager and also develops the overall working efficiency of the organization.

Therefore, delegation of authority is assigning work to others and giving them the required authority to perform the assigned task effectively. The concept of delegation has been developed due to the increase in the size of business and its complexity. A manager needs to delegate some of his authority to subordinates along with a specified responsibility. It is necessary to complete the work efficiently and effectively.

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Approaches To Decision Making

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The main approaches to decision making are as follows:

1. Classical Approach To Decision Making
Classical approach is also known as prescriptive, rational or normative model. It specifies how decision should be made to achieve the desired outcome. Under classical approach, decisions are made rationally and directed toward a single and stable goal. It is applied in certainty condition which the decision maker has full information relating to the problem and also knows all the alternative solutions. It is an ideal way in making decision. It is rational in the sense that it is scientific, systematic and step-by-step process. This model assumes the manager as a rational economic man who makes decisions to meet the economic interest of the organization. Classical approach is based on the following assumptions:

- The decision maker has clear and well-defined goal to be achieved.
- All the problems are precisely defined.
- All alternative courses of action and their potential consequences are known.
- The decision maker can rank the entire alternatives on the basis of their preferred consequences.
- The decision maker can select the alternative that maximizes outcome.

The classical model is supposed to be idealistic and rational but it is rarely found in practice. Therefore, this approach has many criticisms. It is known by normative theory rather than descriptive theory. Generally, managers operate under the condition of risk and uncertainty rather than the certainty condition. in many situations, complete goal stability can never be realized due to continuous environmental changes. It is applied only in the close system and not practicable in real life situations where environment is changing rapidly.

2. Behavioral Approach To Decision Making
Behavioral approach is also known as descriptive approach and administrative model. This theory is proposed by Herbert A Simon, a well known economist, in which he attempts to explain how decisions are made in real life situations. Managers have limited and simplified view of problems because they do not have full information about the problems, do not possess knowledge of all possible alternative solutions, do not have the ability to process environmental and technological information and do not have sufficient time and resources to conduct an exhaustive search for alternative solutions to the problems. Therefore, this model is based on two concepts: bounded rationality and satisfying.
Bounded Rationality: Simon believed that managers are bound by limited mental capacity and emotion as well as by environmental factors over which they have no control. Real life challenges, time and  resource limitations, political pressure and other internal and external factors force the manager to work under the condition of bounded rationality. Therefore, the manager cannot take perfectly rational decision.
Satisfying: It is the selection of a course of action whose consequences are good enough. Bounded rationality forces managers to accept decisions that are only good enough, rather than ideal. Such managerial decisions become rational but within the limits of managers' ability and availability of information. Managers make decisions based on alternatives that are satisfactory. The examples of satisfying decisions are fair price, reasonable profit, adequate market share, proper quality products etc.

3. Implicit Favorite Model/Retrospective Approach To Decision Making
This approach is applicable in non-programmed decisions. In this approach, the manager first choose an alternative solution to the problem and highlights its strength, and compare with other alternatives and then identifies its drawbacks. This is done with a view to proving that the alternative selected by him is the best solution to the given problem. However, another alternative which seems to be similar to the implicit favorite is short listed and is taken as second confirmation candidate. This approach can be observed in the purchase of various favorite items in which a customer gives arguments in favor of his choice on the basis of norms such as price, quality, appearance, easily availability, after-sales service etc. to reject other items of same utility.

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Decision Making Styles

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Decision making style basically depends on managers' approach to decision making. Decision making style propose that people differ in two dimensions when they approach decision making. The first is an individual's way of thinking and second is individual's tolerance for ambiguity. On the basis of the way of thinking and tolerance for ambiguity, decision making styles may be classified as directive, analytic, conceptual and behavioral.

1. Directive Decision Making Style
Managers who use directive decision making style have low tolerance for ambiguity and they rational in the way they think. They are very logical, efficient and take quick decisions within a short time. They assess few alternatives and also consider limited information while taking any decision. Basically such managers use their logic and idea while taking decisions.

2. Analytic Decision Making Style
Managers using analytic decision making style have much greater tolerance for ambiguity and rational way of thinking. They want more information before making a decision and also consider more alternatives. Such managers are more careful decision makers as they consider factual and detailed information before taking any decision. They have the ability to adapt or cope with unique situations.

3. Conceptual Decision Making Style
Managers using conceptual decision making style have high tolerance for ambiguity and have intuitive in their way of thinking. They  look at many alternatives. They focus on the long run and are very good at finding suitable solutions..

4. Behavioral Decision Making Style
Managers using behavioral decision making style have low tolerance for ambiguity and intuitive in their way of thinking. They are concerned about the achievement of subordinates and always take suggestions from others. They organize meetings of subordinates time and again to get information and suggestions. However, they try to avoid conflict. Acceptance by others is important to this decision making style. 

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Significacne Or Importance Of Decision Making

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Decision making is a process of selecting the best course of action from among many alternatives. It is useful for the successful operation of organizational activities.All the managerial functions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling are determined by the decision. The following points describes the significance of decision making in the organization.

1. Pervasive Function
Decision making is essential in each level of management. Top level management makes strategic decisions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. Middle level management makes tactical decisions such as division of works, fixation of authority and responsibility, integration of efforts etc. Operating level management makes regular operating decisions such s preparation of schedule of daily works, divisions of works, delegation of authority etc. Thus, decision making function is performed in all the levels of management according to needs. This is necessary to bring uniformity and smoothness in the organizational performance.

2. Indispensable Component
Decision making is known as an inseparable part of management functions. It is one of the essential processes for successful operation of business. It determines all management functions and covers every part of the organizational structure. Every manager from top level to the first line is involved in the decision making process according to the nature of works.

3. Evaluation Of Managerial Function
Decision making is a time consuming process and decision makers spend more time to select the alternative. The quality of decision serves as the yardstick for evaluating managerial performance. It provides a clear line of guidance to the management for the achievement of defined objectives. The achievement of managerial performance is evaluated  and measured with planned performance.

4. Selection Of Best Alternatives
Decision making is the process of selecting a best course of action from among many alternatives. A problem might be solved in different ways on the basis of time and situation. The decision maker evaluates all the possible alternatives on the basis of organizational process and suitability. The selection of the best course of action is significant to bring smoothness in operation and achieve organizational goals.

5. Establishment Of Plans And Policies
The establishment of plans and policies is the initial part of decision making. Every organization is established for a definite objective and for this, formation of plans and policies is necessary. Thus, at the initial stage, the management decides the clear line of action and the procedures to gain defined objectives. The practical implementation of defined line of actions and procedures is an efficient way in bringing smoothness and uniformity in organizational performance. Finally, it is helpful in achieving organizational goals.

6. Successful Operation Of Business
Decision making is one of the important tools for the successful operation of the business. In course of operation, many problems may arise at different situations and times. The management solves those problems in time by using decision making tools.

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Features Of Decision Making

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Main features/nature of decision making are as follows:

1. Decision Making Is A Selective Process
Decision making is the process of selecting a course of action from among many alternatives to solve problems. Managers have to consider the various factors before selecting a course of action. These factors involve nature of organization, existing working environment, objectives of the organization, time factors and so on.

2. Decision Making Is Human And Rational Process
Decision making is mental or human process and is needed in all types of organizations. A manager has to make mental exercise to study the impact of course of action before taking a decision. He/she has to invest personal skills, experience, knowledge and capability to study the course of action from various angles. Hence, decision making is common in all types of organizations. Therefore, it is known as human and rational process.

                       Also read: Significance Of Decision Making

3. Decision Making Is A Dynamic Process
It is essential to consider time factor and existing environment, whenever any course of action is taken for implementation. Managers have to take decisions at the right time for its effectiveness. Besides, they have to consider future environments, which may affect future activities. Thus, decision making process is not static but dynamic process.

4. Decision Making Is Goal Oriented Process
Decision making focuses on the organizational objectives. In course of functioning many problems may arise in the organization. The management has to solve all the problems in proper time and also in a systematic manner by considering organizational goals. Thus, right decision at the right time contributes to achieve predetermined objectives within the defined time and standard.

                         Also read: Decision Making Styles

5. Decision Making Is A Continuous Process
Decision making is a continuous process till the existence of the organization. In the course of regular performance, many problems may arise in different time and situation. Managers have to solve those problems in proper time so that the organizational performance is smooth.

6. Freedom To Decision-Maker
Managers have freedom to take any kind of decision. As a chief of organization, a manager may take any course of action to solve a problem by using his/her own logic, knowledge and experience.

                   Also read: Approaches To Decision Making

7. Positive Or Negative Impact
A course of action may either have positive or negative impact on organizational performance. Managers have to consider, as far as possible, the positive impact of the action before coming to a decision.

                      Also read: Decision Making Conditions

Career Planning Process

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Career planning is the process of predetermining career goals and the paths to those goals. It matches individual's career needs with the career opportunities provided by the organization.The steps involved in the process of career planning are as follows:

1. Employee self assessment of career needs
Career planning begins with employee self assessment of career needs. It is preparing a self inventory, consisting of :

a. Interests and aptitudes
They provide occupational orientation to an employee. They can be for following types of works:

* Physical/outdoor
* Written
* Oral/visual
* Quantitative/analytical
* Interpersonal
* Creative
* Clerical
* Managerial

b. Skills
They are needed for effective performance of jobs. They can be:

* Technical
* Human
* Conceptual

2. Environmental assessment
Environmental forces can be political, legal, economic, socio-cultural, and technological. They provide opportunities and threats for career planning.

* Environmental scanning is done to detect emerging trends in a long term perspective. It should be comprehensive to identify all the crucial developments that may affect employee's career opportunities.

* Future changes in labor market are important for career planning. High potential jobs are identified for career goals.

3. Selection of career goals
Career goals are desired future positions an employee strives to reach as a part of career. They are based on the analysis of employee's strength, weakness, opportunities and threats. They serve as a road map to career planning

4. Selection of career paths
It is the sequential patterns of jobs during a career. An employee's career path is influenced by:

a. Stage in career cycle
Career cycle refers to stages through which a career evolves. The stages are:
i. Growth stage: 
ii. Exploration stage
iii. Establish stage
iv. Maintenance stage
v. Decline stage

b. Career anchors
They are the basic drives that urge an employee to take up a certain type of career. They are concerns the employee will not give up if a choice has to be made. Factors that serve as career anchors are:
i. Technical competence
ii. Managerial competence
iii. Security
iv. Autonomy

Meaning, Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mentoring

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Concept And Meaning Of Mentoring

Mentoring is a process whereby more experienced managers actively guide less experienced managers. The mentor provides guidance through direction, advice, criticism, and suggestions. This wisdom and guidance helps the less experienced manager to obtain necessary skills and socialization for job performance and career progress. The learner learns and develops potential as he goes along with mentoring to solve managerial problems. The mentor grooms him to assume higher responsibilities in future. The mentor is like a "guru". If mentoring is done by the immediate supervisor, it is known as coaching. Reverse mentoring happens where senior managers are mentored by younger managers about technology matters, especially information technology advances.

Advantages Of Mentoring

1. The learner has opportunities to interact with experienced managers to improve performance. He gains confidence and self-awareness.

2. There is rapid feedback of action on performance improvement to the learner.

3. Learner is self-motivated to learn with confidence.

4. It is not limited to performance-related problems. It focuses on future growth.

Disadvantages Of Mentoring

1. Heavy reliance is placed on the wisdom and abilities of the mentor. This may limit the scope for development.

2. Current management styles and practices are focused.

3. The senior managers may be unwilling for mentoring.

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Concept And Process Of Career Counselling

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Concept Of Career Counselling

Career counselling is a process whereby an employee is guided by a manager in performance-related behavior. The employee is unable to perform the job satisfactorily. His work behavior is inconsistent with the work environment and organizational culture. It is manifested in fighting, stealing, unexcused lateness and absence. 
Career counselling involves guiding of employee by a manager to overcome performance problems. The problem is desire-created based on unwillingness.

Process Of Career Counselling

Career counselling involves the following steps:

1. Identification of the performance problem
The reason for poor performance should be identified. Specific job behavior should be objectively documented in terms of date, time, and what happened. The manager should have good listening skills to uncover the reason for performance problem. The manager should focus on job performance problems only, not the employee as a person. He should treat the employee objectively, fairly and equitably. 

2. Make sure the employee owns up the problem
The employee should own the identified problem. He should take responsibility for the behavior-related problems. There is no chance of correction until the employee accepts the problem. Employee tends to be defensive while owning up the problems. The manager should keep calm.

3. Offer assistance to help the employee
The manager should offer assistance to solve the problem. He should work with employee to find ways to correct the problem. The assistance can be manager-based or organization-based.

4. Develop action plan
An action plan should be developed to correct the performance problem. Expectations from employee are clearly specified. Resource commitment by organization to assist the employee are also specified.

5. Control progress
The employee's progress in correcting the performance problem is monitored. Feedback is given to the employee. Good behavior is reinforced.

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Purposes Of Career planning

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The overall purpose of career planning is predetermine the desired career paths of an employee to achieve career goals. It provides continuity, order and meaning to the life of an employee. It integrates the needs of individual and the organization. The specific objectives of career planning are as follows:

1. Meet internal staffing requirements
Career planning better prepares promotable employees for internal job openings. Better mix of talents becomes available to implement HRM strategies and policies. Internal pool of talent is created.

2. Reduce employee turnover
Career planning helps retain best and qualified employees. The concern for career increases organizational commitment. This results in reduced employee turnover in the organization. Loyalty to organization is enhanced.

3. Assist work force diversity
Career planning helps employees with diverse backgrounds to integrated into the organization through self-growth. They can plan their career by considerations to alternative career paths.

4. Motivate employees
Career planning motivates employees to fulfill their esteem and self-development needs. This improves performance.

5. Develop employee potential
Career planning encourages managerial employees to develop their future potential to assume more responsible positions. It is needed for personal growth of employees.

6. Reduce hoarding of employees
Managers like to hoard key subordinates. Career planning brings awareness about employee qualifications. This reduce hoarding of employees.

7. Assist international placement
Career planning assists global organizations to prepare employees for international placement. They can work in diverse cultures.

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Needs Or Importance Of Career Planning

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Career planning is needed for the following reasons:

1. Provides career goals and paths
Career planning is needed to provide career goals and career paths to an employee. It provides a clear future directions in terms of career. 

2. Develop competencies
Career planning motivates and encourages an employee to develop competencies for higher level jobs. The competencies can be conceptual, interpersonal and technical.

3. Creativity
Career planning is needed to increase employee creativity. It is needed for innovation in organization. It can be lead to entrepreneurship within the organization.

4. Employee retention
Career planning is needed for retention of qualified employees in the long-term. This is needed to decrease costs of recruitment, selection and training.

5. Motivation
Career planning motivates employees for higher performance. Upward movement in organization is based on the quality and quantity of performance.

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Concept And Meaning Of Career planing

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Career planning is a process by which one selects career goals and the path to those goals. It involves a clear selection of career goals and career paths.

Career goals
Career goals are the desired future positions an employee strives to reach as a part of career.

Career path
Career path is the sequential patter of jobs during a career. It can cover a period of 30 years or more till retirement of the employee. It takes a long term perspective of the job. 

Career planning is a continuous process. HRM should facilitate it by providing career education, information and counselling to employees for career planning purpose.

1. Career education
Career education increased employee awareness about career planning through a variety of educational techniques, such as:
- Workshops and seminars about career planning
- Memoranda and position papers about career planning
- Speeches about career planning

2. Career information
Career information provides information to employees about career planning. Such information can be available through Human Resource Information System. HR specialists can advise about career goals and alternative career paths.

3. Career counselling
Career counselling is done by professional counselors. They listen to employees and provide job-related information. They help employees to uncover their career interests. Employee self-assessment and environmental assessment is  made during for career counseling.

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Concept And Meaning Of Career

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Employees join organizations for a career not for jobs. All employees aspire for a career. A career is a pattern of job-related experiences gained during one's working life. Career is a sequence of jobs held during the course of an employee's working life.

Career can be of two types as follows:

1. Internal Career
Internal career is subjective. It is an individual's self-concept of where he/she is going in his/her work life. It consists of changes in values, beliefs, attitudes, and ambitions that occur as the employee grows older. Each person's career is unique.

2. External Career
External career is objective. It is sequence of positions occupied during the working life of an individual. It leads to increasing level of responsibilities, status, power and reward.

Career needs to be carefully planned. It is the self responsibility of the employee. Managers and organizations should facilitate career planning.

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Methods Of Prevention And Settlement Of Labor Disputes

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Labor disputes should be redressed or prevented as soon as possible. Prevention of dispute means, avoiding it from the very beginning of its occurrence, where as, settlement of dispute means, managing the existing dispute through the use of different management tools and techniques. Following are the main methods of settling disputes:

1. Collective Bargaining
It is concerned with a process of negotiation, settlement and administration of disagreement between management and workers. In collective bargaining, workers are represented by their representatives for the determination of mutually trusted terms and conditions at work. Under this method of dispute settlement, employees and management sit together to discuss about the agendas and problems of employees. Then, an agreement is reached being based upon consensus of both the involving parties to settle the existing disputes or to avoid future occurring labor disputes in the organization.

                              Also read: Concept And Meaning Of Labor Disputes

2. Grievance Handling
Employee grievance is the perception of unfair treatment at work. In every organization employees have complaint against their employers. Hence, a complaint affecting one or more employees at a time does constitute a grievance. Grievances are symptoms of conflict in an organization; hence, they need to be managed promptly and efficiently. Therefore, a proper step should be taken towards the systematic settlement of grievances in the organization.

3. Conciliation
Conciliation means settlement of dispute by persuation of third parties. In simple terms, conciliation means reconciliation of differences between individuals. It refers to a process by which the disputing parties are brought together before a third party with a view to settle the disputes through persuation. They discuss about the issues and problems and reach upon at an agreement. During discussions, the third party can only provide suggestions but cannot influence either party for the implementation if its suggestions.

                    Also read: Causes Of Labor Disputes

4. Mediation
It is similar to conciliation under which a third party is appointed for recommendations and suggestions. Under this process, the party plays more significant role as compared to conciliation. Here, the third party works as an arbitrator by giving a solution on a dispute while in conciliation the conciliator only facilitates the talk between disputing parties. 

5. Adjudication
It is an ultimate legal remedy of any dispute. Under this method, the disputes are settled in reference to adjudication by the government. Hence, this is regarded as a process of mandatory settlement of any dispute through adjudication with or without the consent of disputing parties.