The methods of valuation depends on the purpose for which valuation is required. Generally, there are three methods of valuation of shares:

1. Net Assets Method Of Valuation Of Shares

Under this method, the net value of assets of the company are divided by the number of shares to arrive at the value of each share. For the determination of net value of assets, it is necessary to estimate the worth of the assets and liabilities. The goodwill as well as non-trading assets should also be included in total assets. The following points should be considered while valuing of shares according to this method:

* Goodwill must be properly valued

* The fictitious assets such as preliminary expenses, discount on issue of shares and debentures, accumulated losses etc. should be eliminated.

* The fixed assets should be taken at their realizable value.

* Provision for bad debts, depreciation etc. must be considered.

* All unrecorded assets and liabilities ( if any) should be considered.

* Floating assets should be taken at market value.

* The external liabilities such as sundry creditors, bills payable, loan, debentures etc. should be deducted from the value of assets for the determination of net value.

The net value of assets, determined so has to be divided by number of equity shares for finding out the value of share. Thus the value per share can be determined by using the following formula:

Value Per Share=(Net Assets-Preference Share Capital)/Number Of Equity Shares

2. Yield Or Market Value Method Of Valuation Of Shares

The expected rate of return in investment is denoted by yield. The term "rate of return" refers to the return which a shareholder earns on his investment. Further it can be classified as (a) Rate of earning and (b) Rate of dividend. In other words, yield may be earning yield and dividend yield.

a. Earning Yield

Under this method, shares are valued on the basis of expected earning and normal rate of return. The value per share is calculated by applying following formula:

Value Per Share = (Expected rate of earning/Normal rate of return) X Paid up value of equity share

Expected rate of earning = (Profit after tax/paid up value of equity share) X 100

b. Dividend Yield

Under this method, shares are valued on the basis of expected dividend and normal rate of return. The value per share is calculated by applying following formula:

Expected rate of dividend = (profit available for dividend/paid up equity share capital) X 100

Value per share = (Expected rate of dividend/normal rate of return) X 100

3. Earning Capacity Method Of Valuation Of Shares

Under this method, the value per share is calculated on the basis of disposable profit of the company. The disposable profit is found out by deducting reserves and taxes from net profit. The following steps are applied for the determination of value per share under earning capacity:

Step 1: To find out the profit available for dividend

Step 2: To find out the capitalized value

Capitalized Value =( Profit available for equity dividend/Normal rate of return) X 100

Step 3: To find out value per share

Value per share = Capitalized Value/Number of Shares

1. Net Assets Method Of Valuation Of Shares

Under this method, the net value of assets of the company are divided by the number of shares to arrive at the value of each share. For the determination of net value of assets, it is necessary to estimate the worth of the assets and liabilities. The goodwill as well as non-trading assets should also be included in total assets. The following points should be considered while valuing of shares according to this method:

* Goodwill must be properly valued

* The fictitious assets such as preliminary expenses, discount on issue of shares and debentures, accumulated losses etc. should be eliminated.

* The fixed assets should be taken at their realizable value.

* Provision for bad debts, depreciation etc. must be considered.

* All unrecorded assets and liabilities ( if any) should be considered.

* Floating assets should be taken at market value.

* The external liabilities such as sundry creditors, bills payable, loan, debentures etc. should be deducted from the value of assets for the determination of net value.

The net value of assets, determined so has to be divided by number of equity shares for finding out the value of share. Thus the value per share can be determined by using the following formula:

Value Per Share=(Net Assets-Preference Share Capital)/Number Of Equity Shares

2. Yield Or Market Value Method Of Valuation Of Shares

The expected rate of return in investment is denoted by yield. The term "rate of return" refers to the return which a shareholder earns on his investment. Further it can be classified as (a) Rate of earning and (b) Rate of dividend. In other words, yield may be earning yield and dividend yield.

a. Earning Yield

Under this method, shares are valued on the basis of expected earning and normal rate of return. The value per share is calculated by applying following formula:

Value Per Share = (Expected rate of earning/Normal rate of return) X Paid up value of equity share

Expected rate of earning = (Profit after tax/paid up value of equity share) X 100

b. Dividend Yield

Under this method, shares are valued on the basis of expected dividend and normal rate of return. The value per share is calculated by applying following formula:

Expected rate of dividend = (profit available for dividend/paid up equity share capital) X 100

Value per share = (Expected rate of dividend/normal rate of return) X 100

3. Earning Capacity Method Of Valuation Of Shares

Under this method, the value per share is calculated on the basis of disposable profit of the company. The disposable profit is found out by deducting reserves and taxes from net profit. The following steps are applied for the determination of value per share under earning capacity:

Step 1: To find out the profit available for dividend

Step 2: To find out the capitalized value

Capitalized Value =( Profit available for equity dividend/Normal rate of return) X 100

Step 3: To find out value per share

Value per share = Capitalized Value/Number of Shares

__Related Topics__**Concept And Meaning Of Valuation Of Shares****Need For Valuation Of Shares****Factors Affecting Value Of Shares**
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